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APA Citation Style 7th edition

Guidelines

APA Papers typically contain four major sections: 

  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Main Body
  • References

Check with your instructor for specific requirements.

Font - use same font throughout

Check with your instructor for preferences. APA recommends the following:

  • Sans serif fonts - 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode
  • Serif font - 12-point Times News Roman or 11-point Georgia

Spacing - Double-space entire paper, including Reference list and block quotes.

Margins - use 1 in. (2.54 cm) margins on all sides (Bound dissertations have different requirements for binding)

Parenthetical References - used in text of paper for all sources of information/data, whether paraphrased or direct quote

Page Numbers - Added once paper complete to top right-hand corner, number pages consecutively, beginning with title page .

APA recognizes 4 elements of a Reference

  • Author (Who is responsible for the work?)
  • Date (When was the work published?)
  • Title (What is the work called?)
  • Source (Where can I retrieve the work?)

Key guidelines for each of the elements is provided below. For more specific and detailed guidelines, please refer a print copy of the manual.

General Reference Format:

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of work: Capital letter also first word of subtitleSource.  DOI (https://...)
 

‚ÄčAuthor 

  • Invert all individual authors' names with surname first followed by coma and initials separated by one space.
  • Separate each author name with a coma
  • When there are two to 20 authors, use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name
  • Provide surname and initials for up to and including 20 authors
  • When there are more than 20 authors, List first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis and the final author's name.
  • Use author name exactly as it appears in the published work

Date

  • Books - use the copyright date shown on the work's copyright page
  • Journal - use the year of the volume
  • Website
    • Do not use the copyright date from the website footer as it may be not be the date of the content you are using as a reference. If date of publication is not provide for reference, treat it as having no date.
    • Provide a retrieval date in the source reference when citing an unarchived work that is likely to change.

Title

  • For works like journal articles and edited book chapters, do not italicize titles or use quotation marks and capitalize first word and proper nouns only
  • Italicize title item that can stand alone such as books, reports, webpages and websites
  • For works without a title, include description of work in square brackets

Source

  • Indicates where the readers can retrieve the cited work
  • For journal articles the source is the journal; for edited book chapters the source is the edited book
  • For stand alone items (such as books, report, webpage, dissertation/thesis, report, film, etc) the source is the publisher plus any DOI or URL
  • Format
    • Print book (without DOI) has only book publisher
    • Journal article (with DOI) has journal title, volume, issue and page numbers AND DOI
  • DOIs and URLs
    • Final component of the reference entry, presented as a hyperlink
    • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless if you used the online or print version
    • For online source with both URL and DOI, use only the DOI
    • Include a URL in the reference when there is no DOI
    • For works from most academic research databases, do not include a URL or database information because these are widely available. Reference should be same a print version of work. 
    • For works from databases with original material only in the particular database (Visible Body, ERIC, Value Line, DynaMed Plus, &  Rehabilitation Reference Center) include the name of database and the URL for the database.

 


Source:

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). 

Format

  • Begin on new page after the text. Center heading, "References" at top of page
  • Order references alphabetically by author
  • Entire list is double-spaced
  • Hanging indent of 0.5 to each entry (first line flush with left margin; all other entry lines are indented 0.5 in from margin.

Order

  • Entries entered in alphabetical order by surname of first author.
  • When ordering multiple works by one author, include author's name in each entry. Order according to year of publication, earliest first.
  • Multiple author entries with same first author and different additional authors should be ordered alphabetically by surname of second author
  • When multiple works have same author(s) and date, put a lowercase letter after the year in both text citation and reference. Compare dates (only year comes before specific date; specific dates in chronological order)
  • Order of works with No Author/Anonymous Author
    • Consider if group/organization is the author
    • Only begin an entry with "Anonymous," when work is signed with word "Anonymous"
    • If there is no author and it is not signed "Anonymous" the reference begins with source title. Alphabetize by first significant word.
    • Alphabetize numbers at the start of a source as if they were spelled out.