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APA Citation Style 7th edition

In Text Citations

Author-date method should be used for in-text citation
All reference citations for in-text citations should appear in reference list at end of paper.
Always capitalize proper nouns
Quotations always require the page number of the source.
Paraphrasing/summarizing content of a resource, page numbers are not required but can be included

Quotations always require the page number for the source.

Resources without page numbers - include the paragraph number when possible or the abbreviation "n.p."

Example: (Gleeson & Alcedo, 2017, n.p.)

Example: (Courtney, 2016, para 8)

Short Quotes (under 40 words) - placed in text of paper with quotation marks


"White-crime refers to fraudulent or financially-oriented criminal activities by high-status professionals or businesspeople."  (Jimenez & Pulos, 2012)

Long Quotes (over 40 words) - set in block text using a five-space margin for every line


Standard format: (Author, Year, page number)

More than one author inside parenthetical reference


"White-crime refers to fraudulent or financially-oriented criminal activities by high-status professionals or businesspeople" (Jimenez & Pulos, 2012). 

More than one author in text of paper


Jimenez and Pulos define White-Crime as "fraudulent or financially-oriented criminal activities by high-status professionals or businesspeople" (2012).

3-7 authors: Cite every name in first in-text citation, additional citations can use "et al."


1st citation - (Smith, Roberts, Adams, & Johnson, 2015) 

Later citations - (Smith, et al., 2015)

7 or more authors

Example: (Sutherland, et al., 2017)

More than one source, in single citation

Example: (Esch, 1985; Jackson, 2009)

Multiple works by same author


(Wagenfeld, 2008a)

(Wagenfeld, 2008b)


Unknown Author
  • Use first word or two in the parentheses.
  • Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined
  • Titles of articles, book chapters, and websites are in quotation marks.


("APA Style," 2017)

(Webster's 9th new collegiate, 1990)

Organization as author 
  •  Include full organization name in-text and parenthetical citation the first time the source is cited


According to the American Library Association (2017), ....

  • For well know organization abbreviations, list full name in first citation with the abbreviation in brackets. For all following citations use abbreviation.


1st citation - (American Psychological Association [APA], 2010, p. 154)

Additional citations - (APA, 2010, p.172)