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BCOR105: Foundations of Business Experience: APA Style Guide

This is the library guide for BCOR 105

Using APA

What is APA?

Welcome to the APA Resource Page. APA is a style of writing & formatting that was created by the American Psychological Association. The tabs on the left provide details for citing specific resource types.

Examples in this guide are based on: 
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th EditionWashington D.C.: APA.

Available at the Library:

Web Resources:

General Guidelines

Paper Divisions:

APA Papers typically contain four major sections: 

  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Main Body
  • References

Always check with your instructor for specific requirements.


General Formatting Guidelines:

Font - 12-point Times News Roman

Spacing - Double-space entire paper, including Reference list and block quotes.

Parenthetical References - used in text of paper for all sources of information/data, whether paraphrased or direct quote

Page Numbers - Added once paper complete to top right-hand corner, number pages consecutively, beginning with title page .

Page Header - Include running header on each page.

  • Running head is shortened version of paper's title (50 characters) aligned to left with paper title in all caps

  • Title page - Running head: TITLE OF PAPER

  • Remaining pages - TITLE OF PAPER

Book Citation Formats

Book - Single author

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher. 

Example:

Herr, J. (2013). Creative resources for the early childhood classroom. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth& Cengage Learning.

Title of book. (Year of publication). Location: Publisher.

Example:

Webster's ninth new collegiate dictionary. (1990). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Book - 2 to 7 authors

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of Publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Example:

Law, M. C., Baum, C. M., & Dunn, W. (2017). Measuring occupational performance: Supporting best practice in occupational therapy. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Book - more than 7 authors

Author, A. A., Author, A. A., Author, A. A., Author, A. A., Author, A. A., Author, A. A.,... Author, A. A., (Year).Title of Work: Capital letter also for subtitle.Location: Publisher.

eBook citations follow same rules as citations for print books with the exception that publication information is replaced by a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or the name of the database where book was retrieved from.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of eBook: Capital letter also for subtitle. doi:xxxxxxxx

Example:

Gosling, J., Jones, S., Sutherland, I. & Jones, S. (2012). Key concepts in leadership. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781473914759

 

If you do not have a DOI, include the publisher's URL instead.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of eBook: Capital letter also for subtitle. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxx.

Example:

Esch, D., & Lepley, M. (1970). Musculoskeletal function: an anatomy and kinesiology laboratory manual. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

 

Chapter in eBook:

Author, A. A.  (date). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of ebook: Capital letter also for subtitle. (pp. xxx-xxx) Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxx

Example:

Guillermo C. J. & Pulos, E. (n.d.). Animal Rights and CSR. In Good Corporation, Bad Corporation: Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Economy Retrieved July 13, 2017, from https://milnepublishing.geneseo.edu/good-corporation-bad-corporation/

Entire Edited Book

Example:

Editor, A. A., Editor, B. B., & Editor, C. C. (Eds.). (Year of Publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle Location: Publisher.

Example:

Wagenfeld, A., Kaldenberg, J., & Honaker, D. (Eds.). (2017). Foundations of pediatric practice for occupational assistant. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated. 

Book with Author and Editor

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication)Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle.  B.B. Editor (Ed.)  Location:Publisher. 

Example:

Austen, J. (2012). The annotated Emma. D. M. Shapard, (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Notes:

When listing page numbers of chapters/section of edited book in parentheses after title, use "pp." before the numbers.

Example:

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.

Print Encyclopedia:

Author, A. A. (Year). Entry Title. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle.  (Vol. ##, pp. xx-xx). Location:Publisher. 

Example:

Sucher, J. (1996). Charge, electronic. In J. S. Rigden (Ed.),  Macmillan Encyclopedia of Physics. (Vol. 1, pp. 191-193). New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA.

No Author, Online Encyclopedia:

Title of encyclopedia entry. (Year). In A.B. Editor (Ed.), *if available Title of Encyclopedia.  (Vol. number, pages).  City, State: Publisher. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxx

Citations in APA are found at the end of your paper on a References page. The citations provide the information necessary for the reader to locate your sources used.

  • For book and chapter titles, capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns. 
  • List Authors by last name, first and middle initials.
  • Do not italicize or place quotation marks around chapter titles.
  • Indent any lines other than the 1st by one tab space (5 spaces).
  • All text should be double-spaced.
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Journal Citation Formats

Article

Author, A. A.  (Year, Month Day).   Title of article.  Title of Periodical, volume #(issue #)., pages. doi:########
 (DOI needed only when provided.)

Notes:

  • Article titles are typed with first word and proper nouns capitalized.
  • Periodical (magazine/journal) title is in italics with main words capitalized.
  • Volume and issue information can be found identified as Vol. # , Issue # or ##:## depending on the source. Issue numbers may not always be available. 

Example:

Yerxa, E. J. (2014). In search of good ideas for occupational therapy.  Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 21, 11-19., doi: 10.3109/11038128.2014.952882

 

Article - two to seven authors (List each author by Last name followed by Initials.)

Author, A. A.,  Author2, B. B., Author3, C., Author4, D. D., & Author5, A. B. (Year). Title of article.  Title of Periodical, volume #(issue #). pages. doi:########

 

Article - more than 7 authors (Write out the first six authors followed by "...." and the last author.)

Author1, A. A., Author2, B. A., Author3, C. A., Author4, D. B., Author5, B. C., Author6, C. B., ......& AuthorX, X.Z (Year). Title of article.  Title of Periodical, volume #(issue #). pages. doi:########

Example:

Raghuram, S., Gully, S., Liu, X., Phillips, J. M., Farndale, E., & Vidovic, M. (2017) A vision of international HRM research.  International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(12) 1625-1639. doi:10.1080/09585192.20171308416

Newspaper Article:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month day). Title of article.  Newspaper Title, volume #(issue #). page #. doi:########

Notes:

  • Single pages use "p." (ex. A1)
  • Multiple pages use "pp"  (ex. B2, 4B-5B)

Example:

Barrett, D., & Paletta, D. (2015, June 25). Officials masked severity of Hack.  Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition,  A1-A4.

Letter to the Editor:

Author, A. A.  (Year, Month day). Title of letter. [Letter to the editor].  Newspaper Title,  p. #

Electronic Newspaper:

Author, A. A.  (Year, Month day). Title of letter. [Letter to the editor].  Newspaper Title,  Retrieved from http://xxxx

For when you find an online article on the internet (not via a library database)

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.  (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Publication, volume #(issue #). Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Example:

Courtney, C. A., O'Hearn, M. A., & Franck, C. C. (2016). Frida Kahlo: Portrait of chronic pain. Physical Therapy. 97(1), https://academic.oup.com/ptj/article/97/1/90/2896952/Frida-Kahlo-Portrait-of-Chronic-Pain

When referencing an article obtained from one of the library's databases, provide the appropriate print citation information. The database information/url are not necessary unless required by instructor or article was difficult to locate.

Articles taken from journal or publisher website should include the URL in the citation. 

Retrieval dates are only needed for sources that may change, such as Wikis or blogs.

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Internet Sources/Website Citation Formats

Website/Internet sources can be difficult to cite because not all the information may be available to the user.

  • The general rule is to include as much information at possible. 
  • Use (n.d.) when no date is available.
  • Title of the web page is used when there is no author/creator identified on the page and is listed first. 

Format:

Author, A. A. (Date of Publication/Creation). Title of webpage. Retrieved from: http://xxxxx

Example:

Gleeson, J., & Alcedo, M.  (2017, June 14). The 20 best places to camp in national parks.  Retrieved July 14, 2017, from: http://www.countryliving.com/life/travel/g4452/best-places-to-camp-nationalparks/

Example:

ACL Injury: Does it require surgery. (2009). Retrieved from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00297

You Tube:

Author, A. A. (Date of Publication/Creation). Title of video. Retrieved from: http://xxxxx

Example:

EBSCO Information Services. (2015, August 19). Creating an advanced search - EBSCOhost Tutorial. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kT1kzWfWxiE

Online Documentary/Video:

Producer, A. A.(Producer), Director, A. A.(Director), (Date of Copyright). Title of video. [Format label: Motion picture, Television series episode]. City, State, Country of Origin: Studio. Retrieved from: http://xxxxx

Example:

Docherty, N., Elash, A., & Ellenwood, L.(Producers), Docherty, N. (Director), (2016). Frontline: Supplements and Safety. [Television series episode]. Boston: WGBH Educational Foundation.. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/supplements-and-safety/

As noted on the APA Style website, specific examples of social media are not included in the Publication Manual as they are not generally considered scholarly research.  See the APA blog post on Social Media for more information. For more details visit the article by Timothy McAdoo on APA Style website - http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2016/04/how-to-cite-a-blog-post-in-apa-style.html

Blog Post Example:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day).* Date item posted to website Title of blog post. [blog comment] Retrieved from: http://xxxxxx

TED Talk - TED Talks Website:

Speaker, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of TED Talk. [Video file] *Include speaker's name as it is included in TED Talk title. Retrieved from: http://ted.com/talks/....

In-text citation:

Speaker (Year) or (Speaker, Year)

TED Talk - TED Talks - YouTube:

TED. (Year, Month Day). Title of TED Talk. [video file] Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch...

In-text citation:

TED (Year) or (TED, Year)

Author, A. A. or Government Name. Name of Government Agency. (Year of publication). Title of document: Subtitle (Report No xxx [if available] ) Retrieved from: http://xxxxxx

Example::

Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Department of Labor.  (2016). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 edition, Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/occupational-therapists.htm

Users can find more information on citing electronic material by visiting the following sites:

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In Text Citations

Author-date method should be used for in-text citation
All reference citations for in-text citations should appear in reference list at end of paper.
Always capitalize proper nouns
Quotations always require the page number of the source.
Paraphrasing/summarizing content of a resource, page numbers are not required but can be included

Quotations always require the page number for the source.

Resources without page numbers - include the paragraph number when possible or the abbreviation "n.p."

Example: (Gleeson & Alcedo, 2017, n.p.)

Example: (Courtney, 2016, para 8)

Short Quotes (under 40 words) - placed in text of paper with quotation marks

Example:

"White-crime refers to fraudulent or financially-oriented criminal activities by high-status professionals or businesspeople."  (Jimenez & Pulos, 2012)

Long Quotes (over 40 words) - set in block text using a five-space margin for every line

 

Standard format: (Author, Year, page number)

More than one author inside parenthetical reference

Example:

"White-crime refers to fraudulent or financially-oriented criminal activities by high-status professionals or businesspeople." (Jimenez & Pulos, 2012) 

More than one author in text of paper

Example:

Jimenez and Pulos define White-Crime as "fraudulent or financially-oriented criminal activities by high-status professionals or businesspeople."  (2012)

3-7 authors: Cite every name in first in-text citation, additional citations can use "et al."

Example:

1st citation - (Smith, Roberts, Adams, & Johnson, 2015) 

Later citations - (Smith, et al., 2015)

7 or more authors

Example: (Sutherland, et al., 2017)

More than one source, in single citation

Example: (Esch, 1985; Jackson, 2009)

Multiple works by same author

Example:

(Wagenfeld, 2008a)

(Wagenfeld, 2008b)

 

Unknown Author
  • Use first word or two in the parentheses.
  • Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined
  • Titles of articles, book chapters, and websites are in quotation marks.

Examples:

("APA Style," 2017)

(Webster's 9th new collegiate, 1990)

Organization as author 
  •  Include full organization name in-text and parenthetical citation the first time the source is cited

Example:

According to the American Library Association (2017), ....

  • For well know organization abbreviations, list full name in first citation with the abbreviation in brackets. For all following citations use abbreviation.

Example:

1st citation - (American Psychological Association [APA], 2010, p. 154)

Additional citations - (APA, 2010, p.172)

 

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